Scientists there told an environment conference in Sydney that average temperatures across Australia will rise by about 1 degree by 2030, and possibly by a further 5 degrees by 2070.
Rainfall patterns are likely to be affected too, making droughts more severe.
Australia pumps out more so-called greenhouse gases per person than almost any other country in the world.
The country's emissions come principally from electricity generation, the majority of which is produced by coal-fired power stations.
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